Gillian Frank, et al. v. Attorney General of Canada
(Ontario) (Civil) (By Leave)
Canadian charter (Non-criminal) - Constitutional law, Right to vote (s. 3).
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Charter of rights — Constitutional law — Right to vote — Residency requirement — Legislative provisions disqualifying persons resident outside Canada for five years or more from voting in federal elections — Whether denial of right to vote to Canadian citizens resident abroad for more than five years infringes section 3 of Charter — Whether breach justifiable under s. 1 of Charter — Canada Elections Act, S.C. 2000, c. 9, ss. 11(d), 127, 220, 222, 223, 226.
The applicants are Canadian citizens residing in the United States for employment reasons, who intend to return to Canada if circumstances permit. Both applicants were refused voting ballots for the 2011 Canadian General Election since they had been resident outside Canada for five years or more. The applicants sought a declaration that certain provisions of the Canada Elections Act violated their Charter-protected right to vote. A judge of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice declared the impugned provisions of the Act unconstitutional by reason of violating the applicants’ right to vote under s. 3 of the Charter, and the violation was not justifiable under s. 1.
A majority of the Court of Appeal allowed the Attorney General’s appeal, finding that the denial of the vote to non-resident citizens who have been outside Canada for five years or more is saved by s. 1. The limitation is rationally connected to the government’s pressing and substantial objective of preserving Canada’s “social contract” (whereby resident citizens submit to the laws passed by elected representatives because they had a voice in making such laws); it minimally impairs the voting rights of non-resident citizens by ensuring they may still vote if they resume residence in Canada; and the limitation’s deleterious effects do not outweigh the law’s benefits. In dissent, Laskin J.A. would have dismissed the appeal, finding that the “social contract” was not an appropriate nor a pressing and substantial legislative objective, and should not have been considered by the court. Justice Laskin also found that the denial of the right to vote was not rationally connected to the stated objective and did not minimally impair the rights of non-resident citizens, and that its harmful effects outweighed the stated benefits of the limitation.
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